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美國網民評中國工廠開始轉向零勞動力生產


China's Manufacturers Are Shifting TowardsZero-Labor Factories
譯者:unknown     發布時間:2015-05-21     超過 0 位網友閱讀

如果消滅血汗工廠,人們只能挨餓了

原文地址:http://io9.com


A company in South China's Guangdongprovince is building the city's first zero-labor factory. It's an effort toaddress worker shortages and rising labor costs, but the rise ofsemi-autonomous "smart factories" could be a sign of things to come, in Chinaand elsewhere.

中國廣東省的一家公司正在建造所在城市的首個零勞動力工廠。為了解決工人短缺和勞動力成本上升的問題,但是半自動化"智能工廠"的出現可能是某種潮流的象征,在中國以及世界其他地方。

China's shrinking workforce may be anatural consequence of demographic trends, but it's also likely the result ofeconomic globalization. As the middle class emerges in China, so too do salaryexpectations and the desire for jobs outside the manufacturing sector. What'smore, the demand cannot be met through the influx of migrant workers. To staveoff catastrophic production short-falls, China's economists are advocating fortechnology upgrades and the use of smart robots.

中國的勞動力減少可能是人口趨勢的自然結果,但也可能是經濟全球化導致的結果。隨著中產階級在中國的出現,人們對薪資期望也自然提高,人們也自然希望在制造業之外的其他行業找到工作。此外,即使有外來民工的補充,勞動力需求還是無法得到滿足。為了避免出現災難性的生產不足,中國經濟學家們正號召人們進行技術升級和使用智能機器人。

To that end, the local government inGuangdong will invest the equivalent of $152-billion to replace humans withrobots within three years. Robotic fleets could appear in as many as 2,000companies across the province, in addition to two advanced industrial bases forrobot production.

為了實現這個目標,廣東當地政府將在未來三年內投資1520億美元讓機器人來替代人工勞力。全省的2000家企業可能會使用機器人來生產,此外還會設立兩個先進的工業基地來進行機器人生產。

With factories run almost entirely byrobots, it will become increasingly difficult for manufacturers outside ofChina to compete. Owing to similar demographic and economic trends elsewhere,this may force companies outside of China to adopt similar strategies. At thesame time, advances in automation are increasingly poised to remove humans fromassembly-line work. It's not going to make sense for companies to maintain aworkforce when it can just use robots. The zero-labor factories in China arelikely just the start of what's going to be a global trend.

隨著工廠幾乎由機器人來運營,那么中國境外的制造商將無力競爭。由于其他國家也出現了類似的人口和經濟趨勢,所以其他國家的企業可能也會采取類似的戰略。同時,自動化的進步正漸漸的取代組裝線上的工人。所以如果能使用機器人的話,那企業根本就沒有理由再繼續使用人工勞力了。所以中國的零勞動力工廠可能會成為未來的全球趨勢。




Lee Adama's Moral CenterGeorge Dvorsky
5/04/15 1:15pm
There's another important factor underlyingthe move to automate manufacturing in China that doesn't seem to be mentionedin the comments.
As a former CEO of GM famously said:machines don't strike.

中國生產自動化的背后還有另外一個重要的因素沒有被提及。
正如通用公司之前的一位CEO所說的那樣:機器不會罷工。



PENDING APPROVALTopherLee Adama's MoralCenter
5/04/15 1:18pm
Sure, but once they figure out how to go onstrike, it won't end well for us fleshies.

是啊,但是一旦這些機器人學會如何罷工后,我們血肉之軀的人類肯定沒有好下場。



Cestrumnocturn1Lee Adama's Moral Center
5/04/15 3:16pm
Machines don't strike. They also don't havebread riots that turn into revolutions that end with the ruling classes headsrolling around on the ground. Laying off 90% of the workforce has consequences.Angry, violent consequences. India for decades held off upgrading their cottonfabric manufacturing from the labor intensive low tech first-gen way becausethey knew if those people were en masse fired there'd be revolution.

機器人不會罷工。他們也不會發起暴亂從而讓統治者的頭顱滾落在地上。裁掉90%的員工肯定會產生后果的。憤怒的暴力的后果。印度幾十年來都沒有對現有的勞動力密集型的棉布制造業進行升級,因為他們知道如果這些人被全體裁員,那么將會發生革命。



PENDING APPROVALeric_tanLee Adama's MoralCenter
5/04/15 4:55pm
And can operate 24/7.

而且機器人可以7天24小時不停的運轉。



PENDING APPROVALGear MentationLee Adama'sMoral Center
5/04/15 5:01pm
Machines don't strike. Jobless workersrevolt.

機器人不會罷工。但是下崗工人會反叛。



PENDING APPROVALCroquantes8x10
5/04/15 1:12pm
Because no one wants to work in factories,hence why the manufacturers in region are having a hard time finding labour.Blue collar jobs are sneered at in China, and you're looked down upon if youwork in a factory.

由于沒人愿意在工廠里上班,所以該地區的制造商招不到工人。藍領工作在中國是被蔑視的,如果在工廠里工作就會被人看不起。



FrankenPCsynthozoic
5/04/15 3:05pm
I also wonder if we aren't about to clearsome kind of technological hurdle that will make it relatively easy foreveryone to share in the wealth. Think of it this way: the 1% will make nomoney if they destroy the middle and lower classes. Their only profit channelwill end up being the manufacture and distribution of military tech as long asthey can convince the Feds to literally fight anyone who is not the 1%. Thatcould be VERY profitable. But ONLY if the tax revenue continues to flow intothe government. Considering how little the 1% are willing to pay, destructionof the actual tax base will mean no money for military tech either.
It's in the 1%'s best interests to keep usall alive. They just want to do it on life support.
Anyhoo...I got sidetracked...
The technological hurdle is energy. As longas energy has a high dollar cost, we are all slaves to its production. Betweenrenewable and the possibility of actual fusion energy, we may come to the pointwhere energy is free or REALLY cheap. That means a door is opened to amazingopportunities such as essentially free food production on vast scales whencombined with robotics and hydroponics tech. If we can get THERE, then maybe wecan start looking hard at a socialism/capitalism hybrid that actually works(like some countries are doing right now).

我想知道的是我們是不是不準備清除某些可以讓大家都更加容易分享財富的技術障礙呢。想像一下:如果他們摧毀了中產階層和低收入層階,那么那1%的人將沒錢可賺。他們唯一的賺錢渠道將是制造業和軍事技術的分銷,只要他們能說服美聯儲對付不屬于1%的那些人。那是非常有利可圖的。但是稅收得繼續流向政府。考慮到那1%的人不會支付多少稅收,所以稅基的摧毀也意味著沒有錢投入到軍事技術中。

所以讓我們每個人都活下去是最符合那1%的人的利益。但是他們只想讓我們獲得最基本的生活保障。

而這種技術障礙就是能源。只要能源的成本很高,我們就會成為能源生產的奴隸。在可再生能源和聚變能源的可能性之間,未來我們所獲取的能源可能是免費的或者是非常便宜的。那就等于開啟了機遇的大門,比如結合機器人和水栽培技術,我們可以免費的進行大規模的食物生產。如果我們可以達到那種地步,那么我們就可以認真考慮可行的社會主義和資本主義相結合的社會(正如有些國家現在正在做的那樣)。



Dr Emilio LizardoGeorge Dvorsky
5/04/15 1:00pm
China does seem to be dangerously low onpopulation.

如此看來中國的人口還真是非常少。



kinjmmerio9George Dvorsky
5/04/15 12:49pm
Fantastic! People shouldn't be working infactories. It sucks.

很好!人們不應該在工廠里工作。在工廠里工作簡直糟糕透了。



NeuroticKnightkinjmmerio9
5/04/15 1:36pm
Sweat shops arnt the reasons for poverty,they are the solution. If you take that away, all that is left is starvation.Only reason western countries survive without sweat shops is that starvationisnt the alternative.

血汗工廠不是貧窮的原因,而是解決辦法。如果消滅血汗工廠,人們只能挨餓了。西方國家沒有血汗工廠還能存在下去的唯一原因是挨餓不是可供選擇的方案。



PENDING APPROVALcmrd_pemNeuroticKnight
5/04/15 2:50pm
Western countries don't survive withoutsweat shops though - the whole western economy would have ground to a halt ifwe weren't extracting value from "developing" countries in order to dodgepaying people for the socially necessary labor time.

但事實是如果沒有血汗工廠,西方國家是無法生存下去的——如果西方國家沒有為了避免支付人們的社會必要勞動時間而從發展中國家身上吸取價值,那么整個西方經濟都將停滯不前。


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